Characteristics and rules for growing mirabelle plums
Plum is one of the most common plants cultivated in the garden. The Mirabelle plum tree variety is very much appreciated by gardeners living in temperate climates for their unpretentious care and high frost resistance. About the characteristic features of the culture, as well as about the technology of its cultivation, can be read below.
Botanical description and characterization of the variety
Mirabelle, is a group of plum varieties that are widely distributed in Asia Minor, in Africa. Plum is especially appreciated in southern Europe, in countries such as: Germany and France. Culture, also, has taken root in the vastness of Ukraine and central Russia.
Description of the fruit and appearance of the tree
Mirabelle plum tree is medium-sized and reaches a height of three meters. The top can be: wide, round or ovoid - depending on the characteristics of the variety. The root system of the plant is in the form of a rod. The trunk is gray in color, with small cracks in the bark.
Did you know? Plum does not exist in the wild, according to experts, the plant arose in the course of evolution about 2 thousand years ago, by crossing thorns and cherry plum.
The leaf plates are oval, with a wide base and a pointed end, their color is green. Cuttings - 2 cm long, brownish-green. The flowering period begins in mid-May. Flowers - white, with a diameter of 2 cm, collected in inflorescences up to 3 pieces.
Fruits - spherical or oval in shape, can reach up to 3 cm in diameter. The mass of plums is up to 60 g. The peel has a dense, strong structure, its color is bright yellow or orange, a slight pink blush may be present. The pulp has a sweet taste, with light notes of sour. The stone is medium in size, easily separated from the pulp.Harvest in several approaches, as the fruits remaining on the branches may begin to crack and rot.
Advantages and disadvantages
- Among the advantages of culture, we can distinguish:
- stable fruiting;
- resistance to fungal diseases;
- frost resistance;
- drought tolerance (up to 1.5 months).
The disadvantage of the plant is its susceptibility to the invasion of pests characteristic of plum trees.
Pollinators and fruiting periods
The culture is early, its bearing starts from 4 years of growth and lasts for the next 20 years. The annual yield is up to 25 kg per tree, depending on the variety. The tree has a lifespan of 25–30 years.
Important! Basically, Mirabelle plum varieties are self-fertile, but in order to increase productivity and improve the quality of fruits, pollinating varieties must be planted on the site or insects should be attracted.
For pollination, varieties are excellent:
To attract pollinating insects to the site, you can plant spring flowers in the garden, such as:
Mirabelle has high resistance to fungal infections, especially to:
The culture is mainly grown in regions with a warm or temperate climate, its frost resistance is considered high. The tree is able to survive a drop in temperature to -25 ° C.
Agriculture cultivating varieties on the site
Growing a plum tree is not a hassle. Subject to the rules of site selection and planting, you can easily grow a strong plant, which will annually bring a crop.
The southern or southeastern section is perfect for plums.. The culture grows on all types of soil, except acidic, so you should select a site with a neutral pH or eliminate the problem by liming the soil.
The place for growing plums should be well-lit and free of drafts, which will prevent the spread of pests and fungal spores through the air. Ground occurrence - at a depth of 1.5 m and belowso that the root system does not rot.
A selection of quality seedlings
To choose a quality material for planting, you must contact a specialized store. The seedling should have a trace of vaccination, which guarantees the authenticity of the variety. Externally, the plant should not have diaper rash and rot. Sapling - not less than 1 m tall, and rhizome 30 cm.
Did you know? The crushed leaf plates of plums are used as a disinfectant for wounds.
To save the seedling for 2-4 weeks before planting in the soil, you must:
- Wrap the rhizome in a thin film of polyethylene, in which several holes must be made.
- The upper part of the planting material is wrapped with paper or not thick cardboard, which is fixed with elastic bands.
- Seedlings are placed in a plastic container and left for storage in a dark, basement at a temperature of + 5 ° C.
Storage of seedlings for 4 months:
- Wrap the rhizome in a film, make holes for air intake.
- Place the seedling in a sandbox.
- Sprinkle the plants on top with a 5-7 cm layer of sand to avoid drying out of the buds.
- Store at a temperature from 0 ° C to + 3 ° C, in a dry room.
1 - first grade, 2 - second grade, 3 - non-standard
Direct landing technology
Before planting the plants, a landing pit is prepared in the soil. Dig a hole 2 weeks before planting, with the top layer of soil placed on one side and the bottom on the other. Sizes of the pit: 60 cm in depth and 70 in width.
The top layer must be mixed with 10 kg of peat, 10 kg of humus, 300 g of superphosphate. The resulting mixture of soil with fertilizer is introduced into the pit to half the volume provided, poured with 10 liters of water and left under cover of polyethylene until the immediate planting procedure.Planting a seedling:
- Loosen the soil in the hole.
- Drive a peg with a length of 1.5–2 m into the middle of the hole.
- Insert a seedling into the pit, making sure that the root does not bend.
- To the top of the hole, fill the soil, compact it tightly.
- Tie a plant to a peg.
- Pour 20 liters of water.
- Mulch the trunk circle with peat.
1 - a mixture of earth with pus; 2 - ground from the upper layer; 3 - small pegs; 4 - irrigation hole; 5 - landing stake; 6 - shtambik tree; 7 - hole roller; 8 - landing board.
Tree Care Rules
Plant care in the early years of growth should be regular, because immature seedlings need increased attention. The culture needs regular loosening of the soil around the trunk, sanitary pruning, watering and fertilizing.
Watering and fertilizer
Plum loves plentiful, but not frequent watering, therefore, during a period of strong growth, a plum tree is watered every 2 weeks. For a plant up to 4 years of life, 30 l of water per tree is enough.Mirabelle plum needs regular watering
An adult plant is watered every 3-4 weeks, depending on weather conditions. When watering make 40-50 l of water.
Water for irrigation should be at room temperature, it is defended for 2 days.
Important! After each watering, it is necessary to mulch the soil with sawdust, which will help maintain the necessary moisture for the rhizome, while avoiding the formation of mold. Mulch the soil at a distance of 20 cm from the trunk, so as not to provoke rotting of the basal neck.
They begin to feed the plum in the third year of development, because the fertilizers introduced during planting will be enough for a two-year period.
Fertilize according to the scheme:
- At the beginning of May, a solution of: 60 g of urea, 60 g of sodium humanate and 10 l of water is added. One adult tree needs 30 l of solution.
- At the end of June - a solution of 90 g of nitrofoska diluted in 10 l of water. One adult tree needs 30 liters of fertilizing.
- At the end of September, fertilizer should be added from: 90 g of superphosphate and 100 g of potassium, diluted in 10 l of water. One adult tree will require 30 liters of composition.
Crown trimming and shaping
Crown formation begins the year after planting. At a distance of 50 cm from the soil, it is necessary to cut all the branches “onto the ring” for the formation of the stem. The central shoot is cut off by 20 cm. For the formation of the crown, 2-3 strong shoots are selected, which are cut by 20 cm, all other branches are cut “into a ring”. At 3 and 4 years old, the central and forming shoots are cut at 0.2 m, all thin, broken shoots on the branches are cut.Sanitary pruning should be done regularly. Remove dry branches damaged by diseases and pests.
Wrapping a tree before winter
In order for the young tree to better survive the winter period, it must be insulated. The trunk is wrapped in burlap or thick cardboard.
To prevent cracking of the bark, a procedure is performed for whitewashing the trunk and the lower tier of the branches.
Diseases and pests of the variety
Gum disease is not an infectious disease, but arises as a result of the influence of external factors, such as: breaking branches during heavy fruiting, cracking of the bark as a result of low temperatures. The cause of gamma detection can be increased acidity of the soil. A sign of the disease is the presence of viscous droplets, brown in the area of damage to the cortex. If the tree is not treated for this disease, then after a while the wounds can become vehicles for other infectious diseases.The fight against gumming is to clean the tree of droplets of gum. To do this, you must:
- To clean the place with sandpaper.
- Lubricate the stripping area with a solution of copper sulfate (10 g per 1 liter of water).
- After drying of the wound surface, rubbing with fresh sorrel is carried out.
- After 15 minutes, grease the place with garden var.
In the prevention of gum disease, it is necessary:
- To clear a tree crown from snow.
- To provide support for branches during fruiting.
- Whitewash the trunk in spring and winter.
- Correctly prune branches.
The greatest danger to plum trees is pests: aphid and flat leaflet.
Aphid attacks the plant in the spring, the pest eats the juice of flower ovaries and leaves. You can notice the presence of the pest on the tree by twisted leaves on which there is a sticky coating.
- Removing curled leaves manually.
- Cleaning the site from weed grass.
- Spraying with the preparation “Karbofos” (90 g per 10 l of water).
- Soap solution irrigation - 300 g per 10 liters of water, which is used for 5 days and the procedure is repeated after 2 weeks.
Leaflet is flat, a butterfly with brown-red wings, the span of which reaches 16 mm. Butterfly hibernates in crevices of bark, stumps and under fallen leaves. In the spring, the insect lays offspring at the base of the kidneys, and the newly hatched caterpillars begin to eat buds and leaves.
Measures to combat leafworm:
- Harvesting fallen leaves.
- Catching butterflies and collecting pupae manually.
- Spraying with the drug "Karbofos" before budding (90 g per 10 l of water).
To protect the orchard from pests and diseases, it is necessary to carry out prophylaxis, which consists in:
- loosening the trunk circle;
- sanitary pruning of branches;
- cleaning the site from weed grass;
- collection of fallen fruits and leaves;
- irrigation of a tree with a solution of copper sulfate before budding and after flowering;
- whitewashing of the trunk in the spring and autumn.
Harvesting and storage
The fruits are removed from the branches as they ripen. Collection is made in wooden boxes lined with paper. The berries are laid in 4 layers to avoid a strong load on the lower plums and to avoid their deformation.
Important! Fruits intended for long-term storage are plucked with stalks.
To keep the plum for about 4 weeks, it is necessary to place it in a cardboard box and leave it in the refrigerator at a temperature of 0 ° C for a day, and then raise the temperature to + 5 ° C.
Mirabelle plum tree varieties are excellent for cultivation in regions with moderate weather conditions. The plant is unpretentious in care, early-growing, which will allow, without much effort, in the shortest possible time, to receive the first harvest of fruits.