Apple-tree variety Malyukha: characteristics and features of cultivation
The columnar apple tree Malyuha harmoniously combines the features of a fruit and decorative tree. Read more about its features, as well as the rules of cultivation on the site below.
In 1964, in Canada, in the village of Kelowna, on a 50-year-old apple tree of the Macintosh variety, a powerful branch was discovered that did not have side conductors, all covered with fruits. Using the result of a natural mutation, Canadian breeders propagated the branch and named the new Vazhak variety. The variety had a low yield, therefore, it was mainly used to develop new improved crops, which include Malyukha.
Did you know? Glass balls to decorate the Christmas tree are an imitation of real fruits of apples. They had to be made in connection with the crop failure of apples, because before that the tree was decorated with living fruits.
Malyuha was bred in Russia when, in 1976, Vazhak pollen and specimens of colon-shaped apple trees from Great Britain were brought from Canada. The author of the variety was VV Kichina. The variety is named for the small height of the stem. In Russia, the variety is zoned in the Middle lane and in the Urals, but is grown everywhere. It is also widespread in Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, due to the high adaptive ability of Malyuhi and decorative appearance.
Malyukha has attractive external data - the trees are cultivated not only as fruit, but also as decorative cultures. They create interesting garden compositions in combination with flowers or with other columnar fruit crops.
The tree is compact. The height of the adult specimen reaches 180 cm, less often 200 cm. The crown is pyramidal or columnar, depending on whether the formation is performed or not. The trunk is thickened much stronger than ordinary trees. It is covered with small growing branches, at the ends of which flower buds are formed. Lateral shoots never gain such power, as at ordinary grades.From 3-4 years of growth on the site, the growth force of the side shoots decreases. Vertically, without lateral branching, a plant develops only if the central point is not cut off. The leafiness of the plant is average. Leaf plates are oval in shape with a pointed end. The outer side of the sheet has a bright green color, the inner - a tone lighter, matte, with pubescence.
Malyukha has very attractive characteristics for gardeners. In addition to external and quality data, the variety is notable for its high survival rate on any type of soil.
Did you know? Apples are a natural substitute for sugar. due to its high fructose content.
Winter hardiness and immunity to diseases
The plant has a high winter hardiness - it tolerates frosts up to –40 ° C. With regard to disease, the plant is highly resistant to scab and most fungal pathogens. Very rarely affected by pests.
Pollination and ripening dates of apples
The tree is self-fertile, therefore, pollinating varieties should be planted nearby. The most suitable in this regard are Currency, Chinese, Chervonets. The fruits reach removable maturity, which coincides with the consumer, in September. After harvesting, the fruits are perfectly preserved until January inclusive.Fruiting of the colony-shaped apple tree Malyuha.
The main differences between the colony-shaped apple trees of the Malyukha cultivar from other varieties
The main difference between the considered variety from others is superhigh early maturity. The plant is able to yield crops a year after planting. The productivity of the apple tree increases exponentially, and already by 4-5 years of life, the plant gives 15 kg of fruit. At the same time, most other varieties are just starting to produce their first crop.The Malyuha variety is famous not only for taste, but also for its high keeping quality.Another difference is the uniformity of the location on the trunk of the fruit, which completely eliminates its damage. Few varieties boast high resistance to scab and most fungal diseases. Thanks to this, the gardener does not have to treat the plants with chemistry - it will be enough just a few times a year to carry out preventive treatment with biological products.
We recommend that you familiarize yourself with the autumn varieties of apple trees:
Optimal landing conditions
So that the plants quickly take root and develop well, they need a well-lit area, protected on the north side from the purge wind. In drafts and shading areas, the fruit does not pick up enough juice.The tree does not tolerate nearby groundwater, so it should not be planted in a lowland. Even with high frost resistance, the buds die periodically in winter, which negatively affects productivity. For soil, the main requirement is good drainage. Plants cannot tolerate waterlogging, so you should pay attention to the location of groundwater: the distance to them should be at least 2 m.
The rules of planting varieties Malyuha
The colony-shaped apple of Malyukha is planted only in spring. They make a planting in mid-spring, before buds open on a seedling. It is important that the weather is warm enough during this period and the risk of freezing frost is already past. The average daily air temperature during planting should be at least + 10 ° C. The soil should warm up at least to a temperature of + 3 ° C.
Important! In the rows of seedlings, you can sow siderata plants, for example, phacelia, or cereals. They will attract pollinating insects and will help improve soil aeration.
Site preparation begins in the fall. The site is leveled, freed from vegetation. Then, cultivation is carried out to a depth of 30 cm and treatment with a disinfecting composition - 3% solution of copper sulfate or diluted with water 5:10 Fitosporin is used. A week after such treatment, make for each m² by:
- 10 kg of compost and sand (if you need to lighten the soil, on light soils is not necessary);
- 20 kg of fresh or rotted manure;
- 500 g of superphosphate.
- At the bottom of the pit, a layer of 25 cm high of sand and gravel mixed 2: 1 is covered.
- Then, 4 kg of humus, 80 g of superphosphate and 40 g of potassium sulfate are added to the topsoil.
- A stake is set in the center of the pit, and then a small elevation is formed next to it.
- On it, the roots of the seedling are set, straighten them. Be sure to align the root neck so that after filling the hole it is 5 cm above the ground.
- When all the manipulations are completed, fill the pit with soil, alternating clean and fertilized. Periodically, the seedling is shaken a little to eliminate the risk of voids in the hole.
- Next, the soil in the near-stem circle is compacted and 20 liters of water are poured into the hole.
Video: planting a columnar apple tree
Tree Care Features
Caring for colon-shaped varieties is practically no different from that for ordinary trees. Malyukha in terms of care is considered an unpretentious plant.
Watering and fertilizing
In the first year after planting, watering is carried out on average once a week - 10–20 liters of water. The task of the gardener is to keep the soil moist at a depth of 4-5 cm constantly. Naturally, if there is heavy rainfall, watering is not carried out at all. Adult plants are injected with water every 2-3 weeks: the amount of fluid is similar.Water for irrigation should be warm. 18 - 25 ° С is the most favorable temperature. The moisture of the apple tree roots will be very poorly taken at cold and exceeding these temperature indicators. Fertilizers begin to be applied one year after planting.During this period, nitrogenous top dressing is introduced for the most part:
- in the spring before buds bloom, 50 g of nitrophoska on a tree - dilute in 20 l of water or close to a depth of 10 cm;
- after a month, they again make such an amount of nitrophoska or 2 tbsp. l urea per 10 liters of water;
- after a month, feeding is similar to the previous one.
In subsequent years, fertilizers are applied according to another scheme:
- in the spring before kidney swelling, nitrofoska, urea or bird dry droppings (300 g / 10 l of water) can be used;
- the next time they feed after flowering - apply 800 g of wood ash to 10 water. The solution can be brought under the root and spray the entire tree;
- the last time top dressing is applied after harvesting. At this stage, 10 l of water is irrigated with the addition of 300 g of superphosphate.
Video: feeding apple trees
After each irrigation, fertilizing, rain, loosening of the soil in the near-stem circle and row spacing to a depth of 5 to 10 cm is mandatory. Along the way, weed grasses are carefully removed so that their roots do not remain in the soil. After loosening, the mug circle is mulched to a height of 5–7 cm with compost or a mixture of sand, peat, sawdust (1: 1: 1).
Important! The trunk circle is equal to the crown projection.
The formation of the crown begins from the second year of life of the plant on the site. Trimming trees is best in April, when the buds have not yet blossomed. The main conductor growing vertically is not trimmed. It is only tied if necessary. Lateral branches shorten up to 2 buds. Next year, the annual shoots will bear fruit, you do not need to touch them, but young shoots should be shortened to 2 buds.The absence of pruning leads to the loss of the colony shape and rapid aging of the tree. The next year, the fruiting shoots in the previous year are completely cut, the fruiting yearlings are left, and the young ones are shortened to 2 buds. In this way, plants proceed throughout the entire life cycle. Pruning is carried out using a sharp secateurs. At the end of the procedure, be sure to powder the sections with wood ash and close them with garden var.
Ways to fight rodents and diseases
The described species of apple trees is very rarely exposed to diseases. But even with all the techniques of agricultural technology, a person is not able to influence the weather conditions. Most fungal diseases progress with an increase or decrease in air temperature in combination with high humidity. If there are signs of diseases such as moniliosis, rust or powdery mildew, you must immediately remove the affected parts of the plant, and then treat with 1.5% solution of copper sulfate or the drug "Mancozeb" according to the instructions. If pests such as mice and moles appear on the site, you need to act immediately. To cope with moles, the SKAT-62 plunger trap will help. They fight mice with the help of decoys with decomposed poison (coumarin, arsenic, etc.). It is necessary to set traps in places where a large number of rodent droppings is most often noted. In winter, hose sections are also laid out on the site in which poisoned food is laid.
In winter, the trunk circle, after the last fertilizing, watering and loosening, is mulched with a layer of rotted manure. The height of the mulch layer is 10 cm. The trunk must be whitened and wrapped in burlap or agrofibre. This technique allows not only to reliably insulate the tree, but also to protect it from rodents and hares.
Important! To insulate the trunk, only breathing materials should be used, otherwise the wood will begin to churn under cover, which will lead to decay of the stem.
The columnar apple tree Malyuha successfully combines the features of fruit and ornamental culture. The tree is very convenient in operation and absolutely unpretentious in leaving.