Features of planting and care for the apple variety Topaz
Topaz apple trees are better known to European gardeners - in the CIS, not much is known about them. However, the popularity of the variety is growing from year to year, so the information about it is quite relevant. About how to plant and grow a variety of Topaz apple trees, as well as its advantages and disadvantages, read further in the article.
Description and characteristic
Topaz is a Czech apple-tree variety. It was brought out by academician Yaroslav Tupi at the Institute of Experimental Botany of the Czech Academy of Sciences in 1984. To breed the apple tree, the originator crossed varieties of Rubin and Wanda.
Did you know? The world leaders in the production and sale of apples are China and the USA.
The tree is medium-sized, grows on average up to 3 m. The crown is wide rounded or pyramidal with an extension upward. The shoots are mostly downward. The plant is very leafy. The leaf plates are elongated in shape with a sharp or round base, the color is dark green. When flowering begins in May, medium sized buds appear on the branches. Saucer-shaped flowers, white.
Fruits usually ripen on the glove. Sometimes apples are found on fruit twigs or spears. Fruits differ in a rounded oblate shape. The skin is strong, red-orange in color. The pulp is juicy, creamy with a green tint. The apples taste sweet and sour, with a pronounced spicy aroma.
Advantages and disadvantages of Topaz
The popularity of the variety is associated with a large number of its advantages.
- Among them:
- keeping quality;
- frost resistance;
- resistance to scab and powdery mildew;
- high taste.
- However, Topaz has several drawbacks:
- when grown in cold regions, the fruits grow acidic;
- if you do not break the honor of the ovaries, the apples will be small;
- the crown is very dense, so timely trimming is urgently needed.
Features of planting and care
The growth and development of a tree is affected primarily by planting literacy. Also important is care - watering, top dressing, crown formation and preparation for winter.
In the southern regions, Topaz apple trees can be planted in early October. During autumn planting in a warm climate, the tree will have time to take root before the winter colds. In colder areas, including in the middle lane, it is better to plant plants in the third decade of April. During this period, threats of frost pass that can prevent the seedling from taking root.
Choosing a quality seedling when buying
The quality of planting material is an important factor when planting an apple tree.
A good seedling has the following characteristics:
- age 1 or 2 years;
- the root system is developed;
- up to 5 shoots on the crown;
- bark without incisions, breaks or growths;
- no signs of rot or mold.
Choosing the most suitable place for planting an apple tree
Topaz variety can be grown throughout Ukraine, Belarus, the Moscow region and the central strip of Russia. In cold regions, the plant will also bear fruit, but the fruit will be acidic. However, trees cannot be planted in a randomly selected location. The gardener should responsibly approach the choice of the site.
Important! Do not plant apple trees in lowlands! In such areas, water stagnates in the soil after rain, and excess moisture damages the Topaz variety.
The main parameters during landing:
- the plot is well lit by sunlight;
- pollinating varieties grow nearby, such as Saturn, Raika, Golden Delishes, Angold, Retina;
- sharp wind flows do not pass through the site;
- groundwater is located no higher than 2 m to the soil level.
If it is planned to plant a seedling in October, then a hole is dug a month before it. During spring planting, a landing pit is also prepared in the fall. During this time, the soil shrinks well.Dimensions of the landing pit: 0.7 m × 1 m
Prepare as follows:
- Dig a hole with a depth of 0.7 m and a diameter of 1 m, between the holes should be at least 3.5 m. When digging, separate the upper and lower layers of soil - the upper layer is more fertile, it will be needed to prepare the nutrient mixture.
- Drive a one and a half meter stake 4–6 cm thick at a distance of 15 cm from the center of the pit.
- Mix the fertile soil previously separated during digging with 2 buckets of humus. Pour this nutrient mixture into the bottom of the pit.
- Pour a layer of ordinary soil 10-12 cm on top of the nutrient mixture.
When the moment comes to planting an apple tree, proceed according to the instructions:
- Place the seedling in the center of the pit.
- Spread the roots.
- Fill the landing pit with soil so that the root collar is 5 cm above ground level.
- Tie the seedling to the stake.
- Around the trunk circle with a diameter of 1 m, sprinkle a small earthen rampart and compact it.
- Water the tree 30–40 liters of water.
In the first month after planting, seedlings require intensive watering. During this period, water the plant every 3-4 days. Pour 10 liters of water under one barrel. If drought occurs after tree planting, which is likely during spring planting, increase watering to 15–20 l under the trunk.
A rooted plant is watered less often, but in the first year of life, the tree still needs a lot of water. Moisten the soil every month throughout the growing season. About 10 liters of water are poured under the trunk. To preserve moisture, it is recommended that the trunk circle be mulched with sawdust.
Did you know? According to statistics, 50% of the fruit trees on the planet are apple trees.
In the future, an already overgrown apple tree is watered three times during the growing season:
- at the very beginning of summer;
- at the time of fruit setting;
- after fruiting.
Gardeners determine the required amount of moisture by the age of the tree. It is optimal to pour as many buckets of water under the trunk as an apple tree.
The first 2 years of the tree’s life does not need to be fertilized. The plant is enough recharge, which was introduced into the landing pit.
In subsequent years, the apple tree is fed according to the following scheme:
- at the end of April - urea or rotted manure;
- at the beginning of flowering - complex mineral fertilizer;
- at the time of fruit setting - nitrophoska solution;
- in the autumn after harvesting - potassium-phosphorus preparation.
The exact dose is determined by the gardener himself, based on the age of the tree, the drug chosen and the quality of the soil.
The crown of the apple trees is dense, so it needs to be loosened regularly. Pruning begins in the second year of the plant's life. Before the vegetation begins, it is necessary to remove frozen, growing inward and creeping low shoots.
If this is not done on time, the apple tree will spend a lot of energy on the growth of excess parts, which is why the harvest suffers. When the fruit set begins, break off part of the ovaries. Thus, you can get larger and juicy fruits.
Topaz belongs to the frost-resistant varieties. In the southern regions, you don’t need to worry about the preservation of the tree in winter, but if there is a threat of severe frost, the plant must be protected from the cold.
Gardeners advise to mulch the soil with sawdust or fallen leaves in order to avoid freezing of the root system. It’s better to wrap the trunk with a spanbond. In young apple trees, spanbond can also wrap the crown. Protection is removed early in the spring when the snow melts.
Diseases and pests of the variety
Topaz is well resistant to powdery mildew and scab. In general, according to gardeners, plant diseases are practically not terrible. The only problem that may arise is the appearance of the codling moth. To combat the pest, and at the same time to prevent all other diseases, the plant is treated with copper sulfate.
Processing is carried out in mid-March. To prepare the drug, 100 g of copper sulfate is diluted in 10 l of water. A young plant under 7 years old is sprayed with 2 liters of the drug. In the future, consumption increases as the apple tree grows.If the codling moth, despite prophylaxis, has appeared, re-treatment with the same tool is carried out in the fall after leaf fall.
Important! When spraying, use protective gloves and goggles. The drug can cause intoxication in humans.
Harvesting and storage
Harvest ripens massively by early October. Gardeners usually collect up to 12 kg of fruit from one tree. Apples are stored for 4-5 months at temperatures up to + 2 ° C. Topaz variety has many advantages, and therefore is very promising for cultivation in Ukraine, Russia and Belarus.
Plants must be properly looked after, because productivity depends on this. However, a responsible gardener who will not neglect the above recommendations will receive extremely tasty and fragrant apples for his efforts.