Features of planting apple trees in autumn
Depending on the region in which the apple tree is grown and how well it is adapted to low temperatures, you can choose two periods for planting it: spring and autumn. Most often, trees are planted in spring. Autumn planting is usually made in regions with mild winters.
When to plant apple trees in autumn
In order for the young trees to adapt to the cold weather and successfully transfer them, it is necessary to choose the right planting time and take into account all the features of the region in which the apple tree is grown.
Did you know? Apple trees can live more than one hundred years. In the Sumy region of Ukraine, a tree grows, which celebrated its 300th anniversary. During this time, he appeared several trunks.
The most successful landing dates in the southern regions are from late October to early November, in the middle lane - from late September to mid-October. Trees planted at this time will be able to get enough moisture during the period of frequent rains for the normal development of the root system, become stronger before the onset of frost, and also normally enter the growing season.
Planting an apple tree in autumn is considered the best time
Planting a seedling should be done at least 20-30 days before the onset of the first frost, since lowering the temperature even to minus indicators can cause great harm to the root system that has not yet adapted.
In the trees, by this time, the foliage should have completely fallen. It is believed that it was at this time that the soil had the most suitable temperature for planting. Up to + 4 ° C, new roots will appear. Planting a seedling is planned on a cloudless, windless day.so that the sun's rays do not harm him, and the winds do not break the stem.
Video: Apple tree planting instructions
Planting characteristics will depend on the region in which the tree is planted. So, if the percentage of clay in the land where the apple tree is planned to be planted is too high, then sand, peat, humus should be added to it. The bottom of the hole must be equipped with drainage from stones, tree trimmings. Under such conditions, you need to dig a pit.
When planting in depleted, sandy soil, it is improved by applying peat, humus, potassium-containing fertilizers. The bottom of the pit should be covered with clay, which will retain moisture.
Did you know? The largest apple in the world was grown by the Japanese Chisato Iwasaki in 2005. Its weight was 1.849 kg.
If the acidity of the soil is high, lime is added to it for digging. When planting an apple tree on a site with a close occurrence of groundwater, it is necessary to equip a hill from the ground with a height of 0.8–1 m.
4 meters - the ideal distance at which the apple tree should be from other fruit trees
In order to successfully plant an apple tree, it needs to choose a suitable site, prepare it and choose a quality seedling.
To the place where the apple tree is grown, several requirements are put forward:
- it should be well lit;
- be sheltered from the north winds;
- groundwater should be no closer than 1.5–2.5 m to the surface of the earth.
The soil should be fertile, with good moisture and air conduction and low acidity - 5.1–7.0 pH.
It is good to grow an apple tree on a place where stone fruits and vegetables, currants, viburnum, raspberries used to grow. The worst predecessor is the apple tree. Between plantings of apple trees in one area should take 4-5 years.
Raspberries, strawberries and dill can grow in the neighborhood.. But plums, viburnum, cherries, cherries, apricots, carrots and potatoes in the immediate vicinity should not be cultivated. These crops have common diseases and pests.
Once an apple tree is planted on its site, it will produce tasty fruits for at least 25 years.
How to choose a quality seedling when buying
For landing, it is recommended to choose planting material 1-2 years old. You can determine the age by the presence of shoots. In annuals, there are no branches. Biennials already have several branches that grow at an angle of 45–90 °.
Seedlings should be bought only in specialized stores or well-established nurseries.
Important! Planting material, which is planned to be planted in the fall, is best purchased immediately before planting. With prolonged storage, a strong drying of the root system is possible.
- damage to the cortex and root system;
- spots and growths on the root neck;
- brittle and rotten roots.
The seedling should be healthy-looking, with a strong, well-developed root system, no higher than 2.5 m high. Upon examination, you can slightly pick up the bark with your fingernail - the stem of a quality seedling should be painted in light green.
Preparatory work for landing
The success of the planting depends on the choice of high-quality planting material and competent site preparation.
The landing site must be prepared in a few months. The site needs to be cleaned and well dug up, as well as the production of appropriate additives that will improve the soil composition.
Preparation of a pit for landing is carried out in 2-3 weeks. It should be a maximum diameter of 100 cm and a depth of 80 cm. The earth recovered by digging a pit is mixed with fertilizers: humus (1 bucket), potassium mixtures (1 tbsp.), Wood ash (1 tbsp.).
Before planting material is placed in the soil, it is carefully inspected, paying particular attention to the root system. If there is damage, then such roots are cut off. In case of too dry rhizomes, it is soaked for 12-24 hours in a bucket of water.
If there is no opportunity to soak the roots, then they are dipped in clay mash.
How to plant an apple tree in autumn: a step-by-step guide
Landing is carried out in accordance with the following instructions:
- They inject a stake in the pit intended to support an undeveloped seedling.
- Two-thirds of the hole is filled with fertilized soil, pouring it with a knoll.
- The seedling is placed in the center of the hole, placing it on the north side of the stake. The roots are evenly distributed over the pit.
- They fill the hole to the edge with soil.
- Tamped with light movements.
- It is watered by pouring 2-3 buckets of water under the seedling.
- Mulch the near-stem zone with humus, peat, sawdust or straw, a layer of 5-7 cm.
- Tie the seedling trunk to the stake with a free eight.
Important! The root neck during planting should be placed 5-7 cm higher from the soil level. After the subsidence of the soil, it should be above the ground.
It is most convenient to plant a tree together. One person must keep the trunk at the required level, and the second - to fill the ground in a hole. When planting several apple trees between them, a distance of 4 m must be observed. The same distance should be maintained from buildings and fences.
Fig. 1 - the process of planting a seedling, Fig. 2 - a correctly planted seedling
After planting an apple tree, it requires standard procedures - watering, fertilizing, cultivating, weeding, mulching, warming before winter. An important and mandatory care measure is trimming and shaping the crown. Only with their correct conduct can one achieve a plentiful harvest for a long time, as well as fruits with a high sugar content and beautiful appearance.
In the first year after planting, the trees are moistened once every 7-10 days, pouring 2 buckets under one plant. Subsequently, the soil in the near-stem zone is moistened 3-4 times per season.
Necessarily humidification should be carried out in such phases:
- at the time of blossoming of flowers;
- before the formation of ovaries;
- 14–20 days before the fruit fully ripens.
Under one tree you need to use 3-4 buckets of water. If the summer is dry, then the number of humidifications is increased to 5–6, and the volume of moisture is increased to 5–6 buckets. Watering is best done in the evening.For watering use a watering can
A day after watering or precipitation, the earth in the near-stem zone must be loosened. Loosening is made shallow. These procedures are necessary in order to avoid the formation of a dense crust on the surface of the earth and to improve the air and moisture conductivity of the soil.
Watering also needs to be combined with mulching. As mulch use mowed grass, peat, hay. Stacked in a layer of 5-7 cm, it prevents the appearance of weeds and maintains the desired moisture level.
To improve fruiting and prevent disease, the tree needs top dressing. At least 3 fertilizers will be required per season.
You can stick to the following chart:
|Period||Fertilizer per 1 m²|
|Second half of april||Urea (0.5 kg) or nitroammophosk (1 tbsp. L.)|
|At the beginning of flowering||Superphosphate (100 g) + potassium sulfate (80 g) + urea (20 g) + water (20 l), insist a week|
|In the phase of fruit formation||Nitrofoska (100 g) + sodium humate (2 g) + water (20 l)|
|After fruiting||Humus + potassium sulfate (0.3 kg) + superphosphate (0.3 kg)|
Fertilizing is mandatory after rainfall or watering. Fertilizing, applied to dry soil, provokes a burn of the roots.
An apple tree must be cut off and its crown formed. Depending on the variety, the shape of the crown is recommended different. A correctly trimmed tree does not have a thickened crown, it is less likely to get sick, develops better and bears fruit more abundantly, the fruits are more sweet and attractive in appearance.
The crown is formed in trees that are not yet 5 years old.. From the first year of planting, all branches are cut by a third, while leaving the central conductor 20–25 cm higher. When the crown is already formed, and the apple tree has 3-4 tiers of branches, only support pruning is performed, during which incorrectly growing shoots are removed.
Every spring, before the sap flow begins, sick, dry, broken, twisted and curved branches growing inside the crown are cut.
So, apple seedlings can be planted in autumn, but only in regions with warm and mild winters. When choosing a good place, following the recommendations and technology, the planted tree survives the winter cold and begins to actively grow and develop with the beginning of spring.