Description and characteristics of the Nenka plum variety
Each summer resident dreams of growing the best varieties of fruit trees in his garden. Today, the article will focus on the highly productive discharge of Nenko, its planting and cultivation, as well as the intricacies of care.
Description of plum variety Nenko
The variety was bred by employees of the Institute of Horticulture. Simirenko (Mliev city, Cherkasy region). The parent variety was Oda plum. In 2007, the variety was registered as approved for cultivation in Ukraine. Plum Nenko can be grown in Moldova, in the southern regions of Russia (in the central regions, shelter for the winter is mandatory).
Tree height average - on a stock to 4 meters. The young specimen builds up a crown in the shape of a pyramid, but as it grows, it takes on an oval shape. The crown diameter of an adult plum is about 3 m.
The shoots have medium growth strength and thickness, the bark is gray. The foliage is green, dark in color, with small teeth along the edge of the plate. The shape of the leaf plate is elongated-oval, with pronounced veins and a short petiole.
Did you know? In London there is a bar Yellow Plum (yellow plum), famous for the fact that Winston Churchill loved to be in it.
Plums of this variety have the shape of a barrel with a barely noticeable border dividing the fetus into two asymmetric halves. The stalk is strong, short. The mass of one fruit is an average of 50 g. The skin is covered with a waxy coating, with ripening it becomes a blue-violet hue.
The flesh is yellowish, tastes sweet (a small proportion of acid), crispy and juicy. Easily separated from an elongated small bone.
Nenka plum fruits have a pleasant aroma
The productive qualities of Nenko plums have gained popularity in small and large agricultural enterprises.
Disease and pest resistance
Plum has excellent immunity against fungal diseases and moderate resistance to viruses. It is affected by insects in case of errors in tree care, in bad weather conditions or other external adverse factors.
Learn about growing other early plum varieties:
Drought and winter hardiness
The frost resistance of the plum allows it to calmly survive the winter temperature of –15 ° C. The variety is not resistant to drought, the best development of the plum shows with good moisture.
Pollination, timing of flowering and ripening
The variety in question is self-fertile. and the neighborhood does not require pollinators. Subject to agricultural technology, it shows a stable crop every year, regardless of the presence of pollinators and weather conditions.
The tree blooms in early May with snow-white flowers, collected in medium-sized baskets. Fruits ripen in early August, in the southern regions - in late July.
Plum Nenko is early - this applies not only to the timing of ripening, but also the beginning of fruiting. Already in the third year after planting, the tree gives the first harvest. Young plants on average give up to 50 kg, at the age of ten, the yield from a tree increases to 70 kg.
Fruits do not lose their presentation even when transported over long distances. The dense skin does not crack, and the presence of the peduncle protects the fetus from infection with infections and fungi.
Did you know? A record plum pudding of 500 kg was prepared in 1931 in England. The event fell into the first edition of the Guinness Book of Records in 1955.
The dessert taste of fruits makes it possible to apply them fresh and process them for the winter.
Large and sweet fruits are widely used in cooking in the form of:
- toppings in baked goods;
- cream desserts;
- jelly and pastilles;
- fruit salads;
- ingredients of meat dishes.
For the winter, fragrant jam and jam are prepared from the fruits, juice is crushed from them. From this plum, craftsmen prepare delicious liquors and wine.
Video: Delicious plum jam for the winter
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Nenko has a wide range of advantages over other early varieties.
- Among them:
- simultaneous ripening;
- high productivity;
- resistance to major diseases of the culture;
- great taste, pleasant and strong aroma;
- universality of use.
There were no flaws in the variety, reviews of gardeners with experience in growing are positive.
Optimal conditions for growing
The tree will bear fruit well in elevated or flat areas. The place should be open to the sun for most of the day, protected from gusty winds. The required location of groundwater is 1.5 m from the surface. The shadow of higher trees should not fall on the developing plum tree: otherwise, during the fruiting period, the fruits will be more acidic than sweet.
The structure of the suitable soil is light, loose, fertile with a moderately acid reaction. With increased acidity, you need to add about 80 g of lime per 1 m². If the soil on the site is heavy, then on the site of the proposed planting within a radius of 2 meters make river sand 4-5 kg per 1 m². Compost of about 5 kg per 1 m² is added to poor soil.
Spring planting is carried out when the soil is warmed up to + 8 ... + 10 ° C, in the autumn you need to be in time before the start of frost (October).
Buying planting material is better in the nurseryas there are seedlings sold in a container. Thus, the root system is closed and with great success take root in a new place.
Before planting, the site is cleaned of any plant debris, dug. In industrial enterprises, a distance of 4 m is left between plants, 6 m between rows. A hole is prepared with dimensions of 60 × 40 cm, the depth depends on the size of the roots of the seedling.
Video: Plum Planting Instructions
- The earth extracted from the hole is mixed with fertilizers - a humus bucket, two glasses of wood ash and a glass of superphosphate.
- A peg for support is installed at the bottom.
- The seedling is thrown out of the tank with the soil lump, placed on the bottom next to the stake.
- It must be ensured that the roots are not bent.
- Asleeping the roots with the prepared fertile mixture, the growth point is left above the edge of the soil, about 6 cm.
- The soil is compacted and watered. In total, they spend up to 20 liters of water, pouring in parts, as the soil absorbs moisture.
- Around the trunk they grab an earthen mound, lay mulch.
1 - a mixture of earth with pus; 2 - ground from the upper layer; 3 - small pegs; 4 - irrigation hole; 5 - landing stake; 6 - shtambik tree; 7 - hole roller; 8 - landing board.
Tree Care Features
Plum Nenko is not capricious in leaving, the only thing that should not be forgotten to the gardener - she loves the moist earth.
Watering and fertilizer
Moisturizing should be carried out often, especially during the laying of flower buds and fruit ovaries. From May to July, the procedure is carried out once a week, spending 10 liters of water under each tree, morning and evening. In another period, hydration is carried out less often - up to 3 times a month.
Important! Fresh manure or bird droppings cannot be introduced into the soil: they will burn the surface of the roots.
For the first 2-3 years, until the tree bears fruit, humus (a bucket per 1 m²), potassium salt (40 g) and superphosphate (100 g) are introduced into the soil during the winter. In the spring, nitrogen is added to build green mass, for example, a urea solution of 50 g / 10 l.
When the plum begins to bear fruit, the proportion of nitrogen components is reduced: in the spring - up to 30 g (urea), in the autumn for digging - up to 4 kg (humus, compost). The proportion of phosphorus and potassium, on the contrary, is increased: potassium - up to 50-60 g, phosphorus - up to 180 g.
After watering, the ground in the near-stem circle needs to be loosenedto prevent the formation of a crust that does not allow moisture and air to pass through.This should be done carefully, since the roots of the Nenko plum are superficial, most of them are at a depth of 20–40 cm. The diameter along which the soil around the tree is loosened covers the area under the entire crown.
Regularly, the soil needs to be cleaned of weeds: such plants inhibit the culture, taking away most of the nutrients. In addition, weeds can cause fungal diseases.
So that the soil around the tree is always slightly moist, weeds do not break through and the roots do not overheat, it is advisable to cover the trunk circle with mulch a layer of 15 cm. The material can serve as peat, sawdust, straw.
Formative procedure starts when landing. For successful laying of the crown of the correct form, the branches are cut to a third of their length. Subsequently, this will help to distribute the load on the fruit branches and improve the taste of the fruit.
Every spring and autumn, a tree is inspected for damage to branches, broken off, weak shoots. These parts must be removed, since they have no prospects for further development.
Every year, as the plum grows, it needs a little rejuvenation.. To form a lush crown frame, the upper shoots are cut a quarter - thus giving way to young side branches. Thinning a thickened crown, first of all, you need to remove branches whose growth is directed inside it. Then cut thin and weakly fruitful shoots, curved branches.
In winter, the plum trunk is whitened to a height of 1.2 m with a mixture of lime and clay: the solution will protect the bark from cracks in frost. After whitewashing, the soil is grabbed around the trunk, about 30 cm, and mulch is placed on top.
Important! In regions with colder winters, after laying a good layer of mulch in the near-stem circle, cover it with an agro-span and, in addition, a spruce.
Peat or straw will protect the soil from freezing, and the roots from hypothermia. A layer of spruce branches wrapped over the trunk to a height of 50–70 cm from the ground will help from rodents.
It’s not difficult to grow Nenko - the culture is resistant to negative factors, unpretentious in care. The fruit harvest is large and tasty, the plum is eaten fresh and harvested for the winter.