Variety of apple trees White filling: characteristics and features of growing
White apple-trees are probably known to almost all gardeners. This is a long-standing and well-known variety. About how to plant the White filling, what is the agricultural technique of growing, and when the fruits ripen - read further in the article.
Variety Origin History
White filling is an old apple variety, the origin of which is not known for certain. The most likely assumption is that he appeared in the Baltic countries. At the same time, the well-known breeder Simirenko L.P. believed that the variety was bred in ancient Russian times. It is impossible to name specific originators, since the White Bulk is the fruit of folk selection. There is an erroneous opinion that White filling and Papirovka are the same variety.In many sources, in the description of the variety “White filling” is also called “Papirovka”, although this variety is from the Baltics, and “White filling” is an original Russian variety originating from the Middle Volga. In the State Register of Selection Achievements they are considered various varieties. A synonym for Papirovka is White Baltic Pouring, which is not identical to the White Pouring. These are two old varieties that are used in our time for selection. Of these, varieties of the Daughter of Papiroki, Bulk Isetsky and others were bred. White filling is zoned in almost all regions of the Russian Federation, with the exception of the Far Eastern, Ural and East Siberian districts.
Description and characteristics of apple tree White filling
Before planting, pay attention to the parameters of trees and fruits. Based on the characteristics, the gardener can decide whether this variety is suitable for him.
Did you know? The first cultivated apple orchards in Kievan Rus appeared during the reign of Yaroslav the Wise in the XI century.
The trees are medium-sized and grow up to 4–5 m. The crown of the young plant is pyramidal, then in the process of growth it becomes round. The diameter of the trunk is 0.4 m on average. The bark is light gray. Leaves grow with medium density. Leaf plates are held on long stalks, have the shape of an ellipse, grayish-green in color. When flowering on branches, light pink large-sized buds bloom.
Fruits are rounded conical, with even sides. The weight of one fruit ranges from 100 to 150 g. The skin color is light green, sometimes with a pinkish blush. The pulp is white and friable. Taste of apples. White sweet and sour filling, with a pleasant aroma and aftertaste.And even in the market you cannot always get it. So grow it yourself. And then you can prepare a unique compote from whole apples for the winter. Nothing comparable.
The rhizome of the plant depends on its size. Small apple trees, dwarfs and half-dwarfs have a developed root system, but there is no central stem. If the tree is tall, on the contrary, it will have a powerful central core.
White filling bears fruit quite abundantly. A gardener removes up to 200 kg of apples per year from one tree.
Self-fertility and pollinating varieties
Saponification is possible, but completely ineffective - yield in this case is deteriorating, and ripened fruits are not viable. For good fruiting, it is better to plant pollinator varieties nearby. These include:
- Glory to the winners;
- Golden Delicious;
Winter hardiness and disease resistance
The variety is characterized by high winter hardiness. and tolerates frosty winters well. Resistance to all diseases and pests is medium.
Ripening and harvesting dates
The first crop should be expected 5 years after planting a seedling. Mass fruiting begins in the first ten days of August.The second stage of ripening is the third decade of the same month.The apple tree bears fruit regularly, starting from 4-5 years old and up to 45 years old.
Pros and cons of the variety
- The advantages of the variety are:
- high productivity;
- winter hardiness;
- early ripening;
- high taste;
- unpretentiousness in leaving.
- Among the shortcomings of gardeners distinguish:
- poor keeping quality;
- unsuitability for long-distance transportation;
- ripening too many fruits too quickly.
Planting and caring for an apple tree
The first important step in growing an apple tree is planting a seedling. The further development of the plant depends on it. Further care is also important, which directly affects the productivity of the tree.
Important! To avoid buying low-quality seedlings, buy apple trees in specialized centers where the product has the necessary quality certification.
How to choose the right seedling
Selection of a seedling is the most important stage before planting. The quality of the planting material determines how quickly it takes root. A seedling suitable for planting should have the following qualities:
- height not lower than 1.5 m;
- one-piece straight trunk without cuts, thickenings;
- 5 skeletal branches on the trunk;
- branches are smooth, without breaks;
- the rhizome on the cut is white.
Place for landing, optimal timing
White filling poorly takes root on heavy soil. It is best to choose areas with loamy or sandy loam substrate for planting. Leached chernozems are also suitable. The landing site should be well lit by sunlight. The water at the landing site should not stagnate after rain, so it is better to choose hills.
Did you know? The ancestor of the domestic apple tree is the Sivers apple tree, which still grows wild in the foothill territories of Kazakhstan and Central Asia.
Groundwater should be no closer than 2 m to ground level. The optimal landing time in the middle lane is the end of April-beginning of May. By this time, the air and soil are warming up to a level sufficient for the variety. Depending on the climate, landing can be done sooner or later.
Landing pit preparation
Planting pits are prepared a month before planting seedlings. When preparing, proceed as follows:
- Dig a hole with a depth of 0.7 m and a diameter of 1 m. Pour the top layer of soil in the process of digging into a bucket - it will still be needed when preparing a nutritious soil mixture.
- Drive a wooden stake 15 cm from the center of the pit. A seedling will need to be tied to it in the future.
- Put a layer of drainage in the form of broken brick or expanded clay on the bottom of the landing pit.
- Mix the topsoil from the pit digging process with an equal amount of peat, compost and humus. Pour this nutrient mixture into the bottom of the landing pit.
- Cover the pit with a film, the ends of which are pressed down with bricks or stones so that the wind does not blow it off.
When landing, follow clear technology:
- Dip the seedling rhizome in a clay mash.
- Place the plant in the pit so that the trunk is located north of the peg driven in advance.
- Spread the rhizome and, holding the seedling, water it until the substrate ceases to absorb water.
- Fill the planting pit with soil so that the root neck of the seedling is 5 cm above ground level.
- Tie the barrel to the peg.
- Mulch the circle around the trunk with hay or sawdust.
Video: planting instructions for apple seedlings
Watering, loosening and fertilizing
After planting, it is important to properly care for the apple tree. The literacy of the gardener depends on the life of the tree and productivity. Watering young plants up to 5 years of life is carried out weekly. Next, the apple trees are watered three times during the growing season:
- at the time of budding;
- during fruit setting;
- 2 weeks before mass bearing.
Tree should be fertilized starting from the second year of life. Top dressing is made according to the following scheme:
- in April - humus or urea;
- before flowering - liquid humus;
- at the time of fruit setting - a mixture of nitrophosphate and sodium humate;
- at the end of fruiting - potassium top dressing and superphosphate.
Video: feeding apple trees
Tree crown formation
Pruning is carried out in the spring before the start of the growing season:
- Before the branch begins, the tree is cut so that there is a seedling with a height of not more than 0.9 m.
- When the branches begin to grow, they are cut off at the level of 0.6 m. The shoots growing inward are removed completely. Branches that grow to the sides shorten to the third kidney. The main trunk, or conductor, is cut so that it is always higher than the side branches by 0.2 m.
- When pruning, broken, frozen or dried shoots must also be removed.
Major pests and diseases
White filling is not highly resistant to diseases and pests. From diseases, a culture can affect:A solution of Bordeaux mixture in a concentration of 1–2% helps well from them.
Of the pests for the variety are dangerous:To control pests, use insecticides, such as Actaru or Karate. It is better to cut and burn the affected parts of the tree, and grease the places of cuts with garden var.
Harvesting and storage
Fruits on the branches of trees of this variety usually ripen a lot, so it is better not to leave them for a long time on the tree. Apples of the White filling variety do not differ in keeping quality and are stored for a maximum of 20 days. Their transportability is also low. It is better to eat or process the fruits immediately.
Important! Collect fruits only by hand. You can not shake the tree and shoot down the fruits, because when they fall, they are quickly damaged and begin to deteriorate.