Apple Cherry Variety: Characteristics and Features of Planting
It is difficult to imagine a modern garden without an apple tree. The right choice of variety, planting and further care of the tree will allow you to collect a generous, juicy crop. Today, gardeners are increasingly choosing the Cherry apple variety. What is remarkable about it, as well as how to grow it and store the crop - read on.
History and description of the variety Vishnevoe
The apple tree got its name because of the bright, saturated color of apples. A hybrid was developed by Russian scientists in the All-Russian Research Institute of Horticulture named after Michurina. Varieties Antonovka vulgaris and Pepin saffron served as progenitors.
Did you know? In English, the name apple apple is associated with Apollo. To this ancient Greek god, fruits were brought as a gift, and the apple tree itself was considered a sacred tree.
Most often, Vishnevoe apple trees are grown in the Tambov and Voronezh regions, but this variety can also be cultivated in other regions of Russia. Despite early ripening, the variety is defined as winter. The fruiting period begins in the fifth year of life. With proper care, you can achieve yields of 300 centners or more per 1 ha.
The apple tree blooms with white or cream inflorescences, plentifully, in the middle of May, and by the middle of the first autumn month the apples are ready to pick. Presentation and taste characteristics of fruits are preserved until February. The winter hardiness of the hybrid is not different - even in moderate cold there is a risk of damage to the bark.
However, the flowers are resistant to spring frost. In summer, a tree needs stable watering, since the variety is not distinguished by drought tolerance. One cannot also praise the immunity of a tree to scab - in the rainy, cold season, the apple tree suffers from fungal diseases. The transportability of fruits is quite high. They are consumed fresh, and they are also prepared from them jams, juices, preserves.
Important! The Cherry Hybrid is self-fertile and needs pollinators. The “parents” of the apple tree — Pepin saffron and Antonovka vulgaris, as well as Northern Sinap — cope well with this role.
A tree of the Cherry variety is medium-sized, with a lush, dense branched part. The shape of the crown is spherical or flat-round. The bark of the trunk has a reddish hue, and the branches are painted in cherry shades. The leaves are medium-sized, egg-shaped, with small crests. The sheet plate is dense and smooth.
The fruits are in the shape of a ball or a rounded cone. The average weight of an apple is 110–120 g. The fruits have a thin skin with a light waxy coating. Numerous specks are barely visible under the skin. With technical ripeness, the apples turn yellow-green and have a characteristic pink blush.
When fully ripened, they become cherry. The stalks are short and full, have a shallow olive funnel. Apple seeds have a maroon color. Ripe flesh of white color, fine-grained. It tastes sweet and sour, juicy, with a characteristic aroma.
Pros and cons of apple varieties
- Advantages of the hybrid are the following characteristics:
- stable and rich fruiting;
- magnificent, dessert taste of apples;
- even fruit shape, attractive, bright appearance;
- excellent transportability and durability.
- The disadvantages of the hybrid include:
- mediocre drought tolerance;
- low frost resistance;
- medium scab resistance.
In order to ensure a generous harvest in the future, it is necessary to observe conditions that affect the productivity of apple trees.First of all, this is the distance between plantings, which is due to the size of an adult tree. As a rule, this parameter is 3-4 m. The rest of the work is similar to planting other fruit crops.
Choosing a place and soil
The apple tree loves sunny areas where there are no winds and water stagnation does not form, therefore, for a seedling, choose a flat area with soil with low acidity (5.5–6 pH), rich in organic and mineral substances.
Important! Preparing the soil begins in 20–30 days before the planned landing.
During autumn planting, the area under the apple tree is sprinkled with pre-harvested manure (10 l per 1 m²), wood ash (1 kg), superphosphate and potassium salt (50 g each) are added. After this, the site is dug up and leveled. If planting is planned in the spring, then all the nutrients are added to the planting pit. The composition of the components is the same as during the autumn landing.
Optimal landing times
You can plant an apple tree in spring or autumn, when the plant is at rest. After the winter, it is better to wait for the time when the danger of frost is over, but you should not hesitate too - the kidneys should not bloom on the planting material. If the deadlines are not respected, the tree will be weak, ache and suffer from sunburn.
In autumn, seedlings are planted 15–20 days before the onset of frost. In central Russia, this is mid-October. It is allowed to plant trees with an open root system from April to October - they take root well. The roots are not pruned.
When landing on a site with heavy soil, a pit with a diameter of 70 × 70 cm is prepared, for ordinary soil - 50 × 50 cm. A drainage layer (expanded clay) is lined at the bottom of the pit and a support (peg) is installed. Next planted a tree. The root neck should rise 5-7 cm above the ground.
The rhizome is neatly straightened and covered with earth. Each layer is lightly tamped with hands. At the end, the soil is moistened with two buckets of water. The sapling is tied to a support and the branches are shortened by 1/3.
Important! When planting, you need to ensure that the roots of the seedling do not come in contact with fertilizers. Top dressing is either diluted with water, or positioned so that between them and the rhizome there is a distance of 10-15 cm.
Basic care requirements
Further care for the apple tree is practically no different from the cultivation of other fruit trees:
- Watering. They are carried out every 5-7 days. The intensity depends on the weather - in hot weather the volume is increased.
- Loosening of the near-trunk zone. It is necessary to improve air exchange and oxygen access to the roots. Perform immediately after watering or rain.
- Harvesting weeds. It is carried out regularly, as weeds appear.
- Top dressing. It is carried out only 3 times. Initially, when planting, peat and manure are added to the pit. At the beginning of flowering, the soil is fertilized with phosphorus-containing preparations. The third top dressing is introduced when ovaries appear - the apple trees are fertilized with potassium-containing agents.
- Pruning. For the first time it is done a year after planting. Subsequently, branch pruning is carried out for sanitary purposes.
- Winter preparations. Before the onset of cold weather, young trees are insulated in this way: the trunk area is covered with mulch, covered with spruce branches or leaves, and after snowfall, covered with a snowdrift.
Video: How to care for apple seedlings
Pest and Disease Control Methods
Since the Vishnevoe variety does not have resistance to scab, it needs to provide protection against this ailment.
Did you know? The smallest apple was slightly larger than a pea, and the largest — with the head of a newborn baby.
To do this, conduct regular processing of the tree:
- In the spring, before budding, the soil near the tree and the crown are treated with copper sulfate or a solution of Bordeaux fluid.
- Before flowering, spray with potassium humate or Fitosporin-M.
- After falling leaves in mid-autumn, the leaves and other debris near the apple tree are removed, and the tree is again treated with Bordeaux mixture and copper sulphate.
Pests attack a culture when its immunity is weakened. However, they can hit the whole tree.Ticks, aphids and leaf fleas feed on the sap of the plant (buds, leaves, buds), apple moth spoils the foliage, and a sawfly and codling moth harm the fruits.
Important! Any chemical treatments must be completed 3 weeks before harvest.
Fight them in the following ways:
- Aphid. To get rid of it, the tree is treated with a solution of Karbofos, Nitrafen or tobacco broth mixed with soap.
- Apple tick. It is destroyed by Dicofol and Karbofos, which alternate.
- Listobloshka. To prevent its occurrence, when the buds open, the tree is treated with Karbofos or Nitrafen. Some gardeners advise to smoke an apple tree for 2-3 hours with tobacco smoke.
- Apple Moth. Prevention is carried out when the first leaves appear and after flowering. The tree is sprayed with "Zolon" or a solution of chlorophos.
Features of harvesting and storage of crops
You can remove the cherry fruit in early September, but with a cold and rainy summer - at the end of the month.
At the same time, experienced gardeners are advised to adhere to such rules:
- take fruits from branches early in the morning, when they have not yet warmed up after night;
- collection is carried out from lower to upper branches;
- work is done carefully so as not to damage the apples;
- after rain or watering, the crop is not harvested - the fruit must be dry;
- before being stored, the fruits are cooled to + 3 ... + 5 ° C.
Store the collected apples in a wooden container, sprinkled with sand, straw or sawdust.
Important! Shelf life of apples will increase if they are wrapped in oiled paper.
There are several ways to store:
- on the balcony or loggia (if they are glazed);
- in a cellar or basement (the temperature should be between + 1 ... + 3 ° C);
- in the refrigerator, in the compartment for vegetables and fruits.
Even an aspiring gardener can grow an apple tree of the Vishnevoe variety. For this, favorable conditions should be created and agricultural work carried out on time. Subject to all the rules for the care and cultivation, a generous harvest will be provided for sure.