Variety of apple tree Vasyugan: description and detailed description, growing rules
Vasyugan is a vivid representative of columnar apple trees, characterized by compactness, early maturity and productivity. The variety is perfect for a small plot, growing in containers, as well as creating compact gardens. About how to grow a columnar apple-tree Vasyugan and what are the features of the variety, read the review.
Botanical description and characteristics of the columnar apple tree Vasyugan
Outwardly, such apple trees are similar to pyramidal poplars. They have practically no lateral branches, and fruiting occurs on the spears and ringworms along the trunk. The relatively small height (up to 2 m) and early fruiting (for 2 years) make them extremely popular. A feature of such trees is that they will grow and bear fruit for about 15–20 years, and then begin to die.
Did you know? The first columnar apple tree was received quite by accident. — it was a mutated Macintosh branch that was planted on a stock. The variety was named Vazhak and became the founder of a new type of apple trees.
There are a lot of options for using home-made columnar varieties: they are used to decorate arbors and recreation areas, create hedges and, of course, to get a crop. On average, it is 10-16 kg of apples from one tree. Another feature of these trees is regular fruiting. Yields are affected by weather conditions, soil fertility and watering, but in any case, you will be annually harvesting apples.
Tree morphology and fruit description
The tree is characterized by a small compact cylindrical crown without side branches. The trunk is very leafy. Flowering occurs on small branches with flowering buds along the trunk. Branching is possible during the first 3 years of growth. If the apical bud dies during this period, the plant forms lateral shoots, so gardeners try to preserve it.
Did you know? If you plant a plot of 1 hectare with columnar apple trees, then 20,000 trees will fit there, which in the season will yield 800 c.
After the apple tree begins to bear fruit, its growth freezes, and in other years the energy focuses on fruiting. The first crop can be obtained for 2 years of growth. Over the next 5 years, productivity increases until it reaches a maximum. After 20 years, most of the bells will dry out, and the tree will need to be replaced with a new one.Characteristics of the Vasyugan variety:
- originator - Institute of Horticulture, 1987;
- variety obtained by crossing Brusnichnaya and KV5;
- Designed for Central Russia, but grows well in the Far Eastern District;
- Needs pollinators, productive, resistant to diseases, early;
- the tree is undersized, half-dwarf;
- height 2-3 m, depending on the scion;
- the trunk is strong, densely leafy;
- the crown is compact, elongated, with a diameter of not more than 1 m;
- life expectancy is 15 years.
An apple tree blooms in early May. Forms medium-sized fruits. Harvesting can be planned for late August or early September, depending on weather conditions.
Characteristics of the fruit:
- apples: round-conical, weighing up to 100-140 g;
- skin tone: in technical maturity - green, in ripened form - red, due to intensive coverage of the fetus with a blush;
- peel: dense, thin;
- pulp texture: juicy, granular, white;
- taste: dessert, sweet and sour;
- tasting score: 4 points out of 5;
- productivity: average, annually collect 6–8 kg from one tree.
Positive qualities of the variety
- Advantages of the Vasyugan column-shaped apple tree are:
- compactness - occupies no more than 1–1.5 m² of land;
- high decorative properties;
- early maturity - fruiting begins at 2 year;
- useful life - 15 years;
- convenience in leaving;
- high winter hardiness;
- stable yield;
- disease resistance.
The yield of colonized apple trees depends on how good the conditions for tree growth are. He definitely needs good lighting, fertile soil and plentiful watering.
A pollinator may be a variety whose bloom occurs in early May: for example, the Canadian columnar apple tree Sunrise. If apple trees Vasyugan for planting will be bought in the nursery, then there will definitely be varieties that can be pollinators.
Features of planting and care for the apple tree
Colon-shaped apple trees are easy to grow. All regions are suitable for them, with winter temperatures ranging from –12 ° to –35 ° C. They perfectly tolerate any weather conditions, except for the tropical and equatorial climate, since they need several months of winter to enter the new vegetative cycle. They are planted at a distance of 1 m from each other. The minimum distance between the trees is 0.5–0.6 m. After planting, you will need to regularly water and fertilize the apple trees, as well as take care of the soil and fight pests.
Important! The height of apple trees always depends on the type of stock. When purchasing a tree in a nursery, specify this question, since productivity also depends on the stock.
Agricultural Engineering Planting
Like all fruit trees, apple trees need to pick up and prepare a place for planting. Then the seedlings and the seedlings themselves are prepared. Autumn planting is carried out until October 1 in the southern regions with warm winters. In the north, all events are planned for early spring.It should be borne in mind that it is not worth planting a tree in a place where an apple tree has already grown. After all, its roots, pests and fungi remained in the soil, so the seedling will immediately be exposed to negative effects.
The choice of quality planting material
It is advisable to buy an apple tree directly in the nursery, then you will see all its advantages and disadvantages. Often seedlings are purchased over the Internet, losing the ability to control the quality of planting material.
A correct seedling has the following characteristics:
- age - 1-2 years;
- the trunk is straight, without defects and damage;
- height - about 60–80 cm;
- lateral branches are not provided;
- the kidneys are closed, there should be no leaves;
- the bark is fresh, clean;
- the roots are developed, on the cut white, fibrous;
- the root neck is clean, healthy.
The central root and apical kidney should not be damaged. If the root is damaged, the seedling will not take root. If the top is damaged, then the tree will give lateral branches and will be an ordinary small tree, but not columnar.
Choosing a good landing spot
Before embarking, inspect the area again. Nothing should hinder the tree from developing, but an adult apple tree should not cause inconvenience. It is important that its roots are not above any communications, so as not to damage them. Other trees should not obscure the apple tree, it needs enough sunny space.
Grow a tree in bright light - at least 6-8 hours a day. Choose elevated areas so that cold air and moisture do not stagnate around during the rainy season. Make sure that excess moisture quickly leaves the roots. Excessive moisture can cause root rot and other diseases. It is also advisable to fertilize when planting.
Colon-shaped apple trees are planted in rows. This is convenient, as they will be well lit and take up little space. Site preparation begins with digging the soil deep in the fall, removing weeds. Deep cultivation contributes to the destruction of some pests prepared for wintering.Also pay attention to weeds: their abundance, especially with a creeping root, suggests that the site is acidified. For its deoxidation, lime or dolomite flour is added.
Important! When planting 2 trees for pollination, make sure that the distance between them does not exceed 2 m, otherwise pollen can not get on the flowers.
- Prepare pits for 2 apple trees (Vasyugan with the second pollinator). Their depth and diameter should be slightly larger than the root system of the seedling - about 0.5 m in depth and in diameter. The distance between neighboring pits is about 1 m.
- Drainage is laid at the bottom using pebbles, gravel or other material. It should prevent contact of the roots with moisture. Drainage depth - 20 cm.
- Mix part of the soil with a bucket of humus and lay on the drain.
- Add 40 g of superphosphate and potash fertilizers.
- Soak the roots of the seedling for 2–4 hours in water, if it is bought with “empty” roots. Then they need to be dipped in clay mash with the addition of copper sulfate. This will prevent root contact with soil pathogens.
- Straighten the roots and set the apple tree in the center.
- Fill the pit with earth, moving from the sides to the center.
- When the soil is about half, pour 1-2 buckets of water.
- Install the peg to which the seedling will be tied for stability.
- Add soil and make sure that the connection point of the scion and rootstock is 5 cm above the soil level.
- Compact the soil around the trunk.
- Tie the apple tree with soft material to the peg.
Watering and feeding
Fruiting, like the size of the fruit, depends on the flow of moisture. Young apple trees need frequent watering, as their root system is not sufficiently developed to get water from the deep layers and ensure stable development. Accordingly, they are watered 1-2 times a week. The volume of water is 1-2 buckets for each apple tree. Adult trees are enough to water 1-2 times a month. Watering depth - up to 1 m. Watering begins in the spring, along with the beginning of the growing season, and ends in August, after harvesting. If the soil has dried to a depth of 5-7 cm, then it is time to water.
Did you know? In the peel of red-fruited apples, there are a lot of pigment substances with antibacterial properties (anthocyanins): they effectively heal and rejuvenate the skin. Perhaps it is this property of the fruits that was reflected in the image of fabulous rejuvenating apples.
The peculiarity of the columnar apple trees is that they are very dependent on fertilizers. Their roots are smaller than that of full-sized trees, so they are fed every 2-3 weeks from spring to late summer. For optimal yields, practice visual inspection of trees. A healthy tree that does not need additional nutrition gives about 30 cm of finished growth. Its trunk is strong enough, the foliage is dense, fruiting is plentiful. In this case, apply no more than half the required fertilizer.If the apple tree lags behind in development, then it is advisable to feed it. The main substances needed for wood are nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Remember that there is no uniform feeding program for all varieties. Lack of nitrogen leads to a number of problems: leaves fade, growth stops and productivity decreases. Excess nitrogen leads to a dense crown and lack of fruiting.
The rate of nitrogen application for colon-shaped apple trees is 9–10 kg / 0.5 ha. This is the annual amount: it needs to be divided between all the dressings that you will make. Phosphorus is necessary for trees, but most of the amount introduced this year will not be used: it takes a lot of time to break down and assimilate this substance. The application rate is 20 kg / 0.5 ha per year. Potassium is involved in all metabolic cell operations. Calculate its rate in the same way as for phosphorus - about 20 kg / 0.5 ha per year.
Important! A greater amount of nitrogen is needed for those apples that are used to make juices and other preparations. Fresh apples it needs 2 times less.
Colon-shaped apple trees are formed into 1 trunk with small fruiting branches along it, so they are not cut.An exception is the case if the apical kidney was damaged during 2 or 3 years of growth. Then the lateral branches begin to develop, and pruning will be reduced either to their annual shortening, or to removal.The pruning scheme of the colon-shaped apple tree.
Whitewashing - an event aimed at protecting the tree trunk from temperature extremes, as well as from pests. Trees are whitened 2-3 times a year: in spring, summer and autumn. The main whitewash is autumn. At the end of September, an aqueous solution of lime-fluff is applied to the trunks (1: 1 ratio). The application height is about 40 cm. Spring whitewashing is carried out in March, and summer whitening, if necessary.
In addition to preparing the garden for the winter - harvesting leaves, removing weeds and carrion, you need to prepare and apple trees. The most vulnerable part of the tree is the roots: they are not too large, so frost can be dangerous for them. To protect them, the trunk circles mulch.
Did you know? There are so many apple trees in the world that every second fruit tree — it's an apple tree. In total there are about 8,000 varieties.
You can place straw or sawdust there with a layer of at least 5 cm. Also, some gardeners install a cylindrical mesh fence around the trunk and fill it with straw in order to insulate the trunk.Mulching the tree trunk circle.
Diseases and Pests
Colon-shaped apple trees are resistant to fungal diseases, but measures to protect trees from diseases are still necessary.
The main diseases of apple trees:
- Scab - the most common disease. Initially, the leaves become covered with olive spots, which then increase in size, darken. Fruits are covered with dark spots that harden and crack. To protect the apple trees, immediately after the opening of the kidneys, they are treated with the preparations “Chorus”, “Strobi” or “Rayok”.
- Powdery mildew - it strikes new shoots and is easily recognized by the silvery dust on new leaves. Such leaves fade and fall. Heavily infected shoots must be cut and burned. For the treatment of wood, spraying with a solution of colloidal sulfur is used.
- Root rot - arises if water stagnates at the site and the roots are constantly in contact with it. Organize the correct water regime - perhaps this will help the apple tree recover. If the lesion area is too large, then the tree will die.
- Bacterial cancer - manifests itself in places of frost pits (these are blackened areas of branches or trunk). The tree is sprayed with a copper-based solution (Bordeaux liquid 1%). The lesion is lubricated with the same solution, and then stained with oil paint.
During the summer, you need to carry out 3 treatments from the moth with an interval between them of about 40 days. Methods of controlling insects can be environmental and chemical - spraying trees with insecticides if pests are found.
Did you know? Recommendations for growing apple trees from old French treatises advise planting them only in the hills, arguing that the fruits on such trees are tastier.
From environmentally friendly methods of control are used:
- removal of weeds and cleaning the garden of fallen leaves in the fall;
- attraction of birds and carnivorous insects (for example, ladybugs) to the garden;
- hanging traps with pheromones for insects.
Harvesting and storage
The fruits of the Vasyugan variety ripen in late August - early September. Ripe apples turn bright red. Collect them on a sunny day. Crops are sorted: damaged apples are laid aside for immediate consumption, the rest are placed in boxes or boxes. The shelf life of the fruit is about 3 months.Boxes are installed in a room with an air temperature of about 0 ° C and a humidity of 70–80%. Caring for the Vasyugan column-shaped apple tree is quite simple: it grows well even in the northern regions. Following simple rules of care, you will always be provided with a crop.