TOP-10 of the most popular varieties of columnar cherries
Column-shaped cherries are becoming more and more popular every year among gardeners, as they are characterized by compact size, early maturity, high yield and excellent taste of the fruit. What are the features of columnar trees, and how to properly care for them - later in the article.
Varieties of columnar cherries, their description and characteristics
The columnar cherry is a compact fruit crop, which has a columnar crown shape, presented in the form of a cylinder, and a large number of short lateral shoots, slightly deviated from the trunk. At the same time, the growth of the tree is carried out exclusively in height, which makes it possible to get good results, without allocating large areas for planting a cherry garden.
The tree of the columnar type is notable for its small foliage, which is fully compensated by abundant berry yields. During fruiting, the trunk of the plant is literally strewn with bright and juicy fruits. However, to achieve a stable and high yield, care should be taken to choose the right place for planting the crop and to properly care for it. Among the many varieties of columnar cherries, the greatest demand is for a few.
A high-yielding, early table variety of cherries that is suitable for cultivation in the regions of the middle lane. The tree is low, reaches no more than 3 m, with negligible foliage.
Important! Helena belongs to self-fertile crops, however, to increase productivity, experts advise planting Sylvia sweet cherry in the neighborhood.
The variety belongs to the mid-season category, the fruits of which ripen in mid-June. The berries are large, oval, saturated burgundy. The pulp is juicy, half-cartilaginous, dark red in color with small veins. The fruiting of the tree lasts for 15–25 years. Productivity is above average, in one season from one tree you can get 12-14 kg of fruit.
This sweet cherry has won the love of gardeners, thanks to the large, juicy and extremely tasty fruits of saturated dark red, almost black color. The variety is suitable for beginning summer residents, as it has a compact size, good survival rate, absolute unpretentiousness in care, excellent frost resistance. The plant can be grown even in a cool northern climate.
The tree rarely reaches a height of 2 m, which makes harvesting a simple and quick measure. The fruits are large, with juicy and dense pulp, shiny and smooth skin. It tastes sweet, with a pleasant acidity. Suitable for fresh consumption, for the preparation of winter preparations, desserts, sauces, drinks. The crop yield is high: about 15 kg of berries can be collected from one tree.
Canadian sweet cherry Sylvia is characterized by excellent yield indicators, good resistance to pests and ailments affecting fruit trees. On average, it grows to 3 m, bears fruit stably for 15 years. Sylvia berries are large, oval in shape, noble ruby color, ripen in the 20th of June. The average yield is 12 kg per tree.
The variety belongs to the category of moisture-loving, but negatively reacts to stagnation of moisture in the soil. It differs in average winter hardiness, therefore, when grown in cool regions, it requires careful shelter for the winter.
Despite its compact size and height of not more than 2 m, it has excellent yield indicators - from 12-14 kg of fruit per tree.The tree is resistant to diseases and parasites characteristic of this plant species, with proper shelter it can be cultivated in the northern regions, and does not place high demands on growing conditions.
The berries of the Baby are medium in size, rounded in shape, red in color, have a strong, pleasant, pronounced aroma. The taste of fruits is sweet and sour. Berries are suitable for the preparation of preservation or fresh consumption.
Refers to varieties with a medium early growing season. The tree reaches a height of 2–2.5 m, has a crown no more than 1 m wide. One of the advantages of the plant is its stable fruiting, which remains virtually unchanged from year to year. The fruits of Delight are large, weighing 11-14 g, of a beautiful ruby color. The pulp is characterized by high juice content, sweet.
Did you know? Column-shaped trees — the result of a natural mutation, not the achievement of breeders. A farmer from Canada noticed an apple tree in the garden, which had a straight vertical shoot as a stalk, not having side branches, but abundantly covered with fruits. Cuttings were taken from the tree and propagated by budding.
The variety has strong immunity, is able to withstand fungal and viral ailments. Very early in the fruiting phase. Literally in 2-3 years it is able to bear fruit. Productivity is good, one tree can please 10-12 kg of berries.
Suitable for cultivation in warm regions, as it has poor resistance to low temperatures. The tree is not high, up to 2–2.5 m, with a small foliage. The fruits belong to the category of dessert, have a sweet pleasant taste, juicy structure. When cultivating plants in central Russia, one can achieve good stable yield indicators, in the range of 14-15 kg of berries per tree.
The variety has medium immunity, therefore, requires regular preventive treatment against parasites and diseases.
It is characterized by high resistance to frost, strong immunity against diseases and pests, excellent marketable and taste qualities of fruits. Berries, although they are small in size and weigh 7–8 g, are characterized by a wonderful sweet taste and juiciness.
The peel of the fruit is strong, not prone to cracking, so that the fruits can be stored for a long time and successfully transported over long distances.
A tall variety, a tree can reach a height of 3 m, a crown width of at least 1 m. The culture is thermophilic, not suitable for cultivation in the northern climate, as it has poor resistance to frost. It has excellent immunity, is rarely exposed to disease and pest attacks, and bears fruit.
Important! Sabrina is a self-fertile tree, which for stable fruiting does not require the presence of pollinating plants near it.
The berries are quite large, have a pleasant sweet taste, juicy, with a dense, shiny and smooth surface. The average yield per plant is 10 kg.
Refers to early ripening crops, the fruits of which can be harvested already in mid-June. The berries are medium in size, but very sweet, with a pleasant taste. Fruits a tree for 15 years.
The described variety is often used as a pollinator plant. He perfectly "gets along" with other varieties of sweet cherries in the same area, contributing to an increase in their productivity.
It is characterized by early ripening, high resistance to diseases and parasites, excellent transportable properties of fruits.
The berries of a medium-sized plant, saturated maroon color, with a sweet taste. The pulp is dense, juicy, easily separated from the bone. High commercial qualities of the fruits, their excellent shelf life and transportability allow you to grow the variety on an industrial scale and use it for sale.
Peculiarities of planting and cultivating colon-shaped cherries
When growing a columnar cherry, you should pay attention to several important aspects regarding planting and subsequent care of it.
For planting, you need to choose a strong, healthy high-quality planting material. Experts advise to opt for one or two year old seedling, which has:
- a living bud of the apical branch;
- smooth, not curved trunk, with a smooth, not rough and not wrinkled bark;
- healthy, elastic, without signs of rot and disease, root processes.
Important! When planting several seedlings, it is necessary to choose material of the same age.
When growing plants in the northern regions, it is recommended to plant seedlings exclusively in the spring, when the soil warms up well. In the southern regions with a warm climate, it is allowed to practice both autumn and spring planting.
For cherries, it is advised to select a well-lit, bright and airy area, reliably protected from cold winds and drafts, with a minimum of 2.5 m of groundwater.
The soil should be fertile, loose, air- and moisture-permeable, so that the water does not stagnate around the root system of the culture
Before planting a tree, the soil should be thoroughly loosened and moistened. Seedling planting technology traditional:
- They dig a recess measuring 70 × 80 cm. When planting several seedlings, the distance between them should be at least 1 m, the spacing between rows should be 3 m.
- The soil extracted from the pit is mixed with 1 bucket of humus, 3 buckets of chernozem, 12 g of phosphorus and 16 g of potassium.
- A drainage layer is lined at the bottom of the landing pit and fertile soil is sprinkled on top.
- In the recess establish supports for plants.
- A seedling is placed in the pit, its root system is carefully distributed, it is covered with fertile soil, leaving the neck of the neck 2 cm away.
- They compact the soil around the tree and moisten it abundantly.
After planting, it is important to provide cherries with competent and timely care, which consists in carrying out a number of basic activities:
- Watering. The culture in the first two years needs regular and plentiful watering, which is carried out every day, using 3-4 liters of water per tree. It is recommended to keep the soil moist, but not to form a swamp. Older plants moisturize, focusing on drying the topsoil.
- Top dressing. During the season, cherries are fed 3-4 times. The first time fertilizers are applied in early spring, using nitrogen-containing products, for example, urea or nitrate. The second portion of the nutrient components, which are suitable for diluted mullein, is introduced in the flowering phase of the culture, the third - two weeks later. The last time the tree is fed in the fall. At the same time, 150 g of phosphorus and 60 g of potassium are used for each plant.
- Pest and Disease Control. Some varieties of columnar cherries have medium immunity to parasites and ailments, and therefore require preventive treatment. Modern insecticidal and fungicidal preparations, in particular: Actelik, Pyriton, Skor, Inta-Vir, are suitable for effective spraying of culture.
Did you know? Sweet cherries — one of the few berries with a wide range of colors: all shades of yellow, pink, red, burgundy and almost black. At the same time, the fruits have a different chemical composition, the content of sugar, acids, minerals and vitamins.
How to cut a columnar cherry?
Pruning cherries is rare, due to the structural features of the tree. As a rule, experienced gardeners regularly carry out classical pruning of shoots, which can improve crop yields. For plants of the described type, pinching the side branches is useless. But sanitary pruning is recommended annually.During the event, you need to remove dry, weak, broken, damaged or with signs of disease branches.
Starting from the age of five, the cherry stops growing in height, therefore, the central conductor must be shortened annually at the level of 2.5–3 m
Harvest dates and features
The ripening dates of the cherries are columnar type depend on the variety of culture. As a rule, the harvesting period varies from mid-June to the end of July. Fruit harvesting can be done manually or mechanized. For harvesting, choose a dry, sunny and warm day. Harvested in wet weather, fruits quickly deteriorate and have a short shelf life.
The berries are picked together with the stalks and neatly placed in plastic or wooden containers. Before sending for storage, the fruits are carefully sorted out: discarded rotten, burst, damaged.
For safety, leave only healthy, not overripe berries, which are placed in the refrigerator or in a room with stable temperature indicators –1 ... + 1 ° С and relative humidity of 90–95%
Column-shaped cherries - a wonderful fruit plant, which is not only able to please a rich harvest of delicious and fragrant berries, but can also become an original decorative decoration of the garden. The culture is not too demanding in the care and cultivation, and subject to the basic agricultural rules can thank the gardener with juicy dessert fruits ripening in the middle of summer.