Features planting and care for cherries Melitopol
Melitopol sweet cherry can often be found in gardens in summer cottages and household plots. Its popularity is explained by a number of positive characteristics, such as: tasty large fruits, increased frost resistance, high productivity. You can learn about how to grow a cherry tree of this variety from the article.
There are several varieties of sweet cherry Melitopol: large-fruited black, middle early, large-fruited, medium late, red. They were bred by Ukrainian breeders for cultivation on the territory of Ukraine and differ in maturity, appearance of trees and fruits. In the article we will focus on the most popular variety - large-fruited black early ripening. It was brought out by an employee of the Institute of Irrigated Horticulture (Melitopol, Ukraine) M. Oratorsky.
Description and characteristics of the variety
Before opting for this variety, we suggest that you get to know him better, learn about his preferences, necessary conditions, positive and negative qualities.
The tree of this variety of cherries grows tall - up to 6 m. It is characterized by fast growth rates. Crohn has a wide round shape. It is very thickened. The branches are straight. They form many large leaves with a broad egg shape. Their length is 16 cm, width - 9.5 cm. The flowers are white, consist of 5 petals.
Did you know? A person grows cherries not only for the purpose of eating berries, but also for using wood. Hoops, pipes and mouthpieces are made from cherry trees.
The berries of the Melitopol cherry are large, weigh 6–8 g. They are round-oval in shape. The peel is characterized by density. It is thin and painted in a very dark red color. At full maturity, it becomes almost black. The pulp has a dark red color. It is characterized by density, juiciness, cartilage, sweet taste with a slightly perceptible sourness.According to the tasting scale, berries are set to 4.5 points. The stone is small, rounded in shape. Since the fruits have a dense skin and flesh, they tolerate transportation well, without losing their high taste and presentation. Even after full ripening, they hold tight to the stalks and do not crumble. Another advantage of berries is that they are not prone to cracking.
Since cherries are not capable of self-pollination, it is necessary to plant 1-2 representatives of varieties in the garden that can pollinate it. In the immediate vicinity, not further than 50-60 m, Cosmic, Kurortnaya, Black Dayber, Krupnoplodnaya, Surprise and others, which blossom at the same time as the variety described in the article, should be placed.
Frost resistance and productivity
Melitopolskaya trees tolerate frosts well up to –25 ° C and quickly recover after them. Flowering occurs in the early stages. Usually it falls on the 20th of May.Fruiting occurs in mid-June. The first crop ripens 4 years after planting. Usually it is small. However, in subsequent years, tree productivity is growing rapidly and by 16 years old can reach 78 kg per plant.
Choosing the best seedlings for planting
Seedlings should be purchased in proven reserves or in reputable specialized stores. When buying from hand, there is no guarantee that you will be sold the very variety that you wish to plant.
During the acquisition, planting material should be preferred, whose age is 1-2 years, but not older. Adult specimens adapt less well in new conditions. Annual seedlings may not have branches. Two-year-olds must have several shoots formed.Preparing a seedling for planting: - 1, 2 - normal length; 3, 4 - shortened. (The dashed line is shown by dashes.) You need to carefully examine the root system of planting material, pay attention to the state of the bark. The roots should be strong, well developed. There should be no growths or spots on the root neck. A healthy seedling has a smooth bark, with a green color on the cut.
Preparatory work and the selection of a suitable location on the site
Sweet cherry Melitopol can grow well and bear fruit only if it is provided with the necessary conditions - light, heat, suitable soil.
The place where the cherry will grow should be illuminated by the sun for most of the day. It should be protected from the winds, especially from the north. It is desirable that on this side the tree is covered by a building.
The best soils for growing sweet cherries are loamy, sandy loam, well-conducting moisture and oxygen, with a neutral or low acidity level. Landing is recommended to be prepared in the fall.Preparation consists in thorough cleaning of plant debris, deep digging and fertilizing. If the soil is acidic, then lime should be added to it. At this stage, the best fertilizer will be humus. You will need to add 2 buckets to the landing pit. The pit is equipped with a diameter of 80 cm and a depth of 70 cm.
Step-by-step landing technology
Cherries are usually planted in spring - in early April. During spring planting, the tree will have time to grow stronger, adapt and prepare for the winter cold. Autumn planting is allowed only in regions with warm winters, subject to good warming. At this time, it is better to plant planting material with a closed root system, which is moved to a permanent place by the method of transshipment - without destroying the earthen coma.
Planting a seedling is as follows:
- 2-3 weeks prior to planting, the soil recovered by digging a hole is mixed with superphosphate (300 g), potassium sulfate (100 g), wood ash (1 kg).
- On the day of planting, inspect the seedling and, if necessary, remove the damaged roots.
- With dried roots, they are placed in a bucket of water for 2 hours.
- A garter ring is installed in the pit.
- Fertilized soil is poured into the pit two-thirds, forming a hill.
- The root system of the seedling is placed on the hill so that the neck rises 5–7 cm above the soil level.
- Empty the voids with earth.
- Tamp the soil so that it sags a little.
- Produce watering, spending 20-30 liters of water.
- Tie the trunk of the seedling to the stake.
- Mulch fall asleep near the trunk zone.
In order for the sweet cherry to annually please with a plentiful and tasty harvest, it needs to be provided with high-quality care in the form of watering, loosening, weeding, mulching, top dressing, pruning, shelter for the winter, prevention and treatment of diseases and pests.
Melitopolskaya trees tolerate short droughts well. However, for them it is still important to establish the correct irrigation regime. During the season you will need to produce a minimum of 4 moisturizers. They are needed before the flowers bloom, after flowering, during the appearance of the ovaries, in October. 20 m² of water must be consumed per 1 m². The soil should be moistened 30–40 cm in depth.Each hydration should be combined with loosening and mulching. Loosen the soil shallow. This procedure allows you to improve the quality of the soil and to establish the flow of moisture and oxygen to the root system. Peat, humus, hay, sawdust are used as mulch. It is placed in the near-trunk zone to restrain the growth of weeds and save moisture. This procedure reduces the number of weeds and irrigation.
Fertilization begins in the third year after planting. Prior to this, the tree will have enough of the substances that were introduced into the landing pit.In the spring, nitrogen-containing fertilizers will be needed, for example urea (200-300 g); in the fall - potassium and phosphorus-containing: superphosphate (400 g), potassium salt (200 g).
Important! Fertilizers should be applied only to moist soil. Otherwise, a burn of the root system is possible.
Melitopol sweet cherry variety is characterized by resistance to moniliosis and gray rot. From other diseases, it must be protected by observing preventive measures. In autumn it is necessary to thoroughly clean the near-stem zone from plant debris and dig it well. In the spring, preventive spraying will be required.They should be carried out in early spring, before the sap flow begins. The use of a solution of urea (700 g / 10 l), copper sulfate (100 g / 10 l), Bordeaux mixture (3%), iron sulfate (300 g / 10 l), Fitoverm and Zdoroviy Sad preparations is recommended. Great damage to berries caused by birds. Trees can be protected from them with nets or covering material.
Cherries, like other fruit trees, need annual pruning. They are necessary for two purposes: sanitary and formative. The formation of the crown is produced in a plant that has not reached the age of five. In the future, only sanitary and supporting scraps are required. For sweet cherry Melitopol the most suitable pruning is the type of Spanish bush.
Important! Pruning should be done above the kidney with the direction out.
Produce it as follows:
|First year after planting||In spring, shorten the seedling by 30 cm.|
In summer, form skeletal branches by removing all shoots, leaving only 4 placed on top and growing in different directions.
When the skeletal branches reach a length of 50 cm, trim them so that their length is at the same level.
If necessary, remove vertical shoots (tops).
|In the second year||In the spring, before buds open, fix the lower shoots of each skeletal branch horizontally using stakes.|
In the flowering phase, cut the branches of the second order to 30 cm.
In the summer, when the growth of the third order appears and it reaches the length of half a meter, fix the lower shoots on them horizontally with stakes. Trim all other shoots to 30 cm.
|In the third and subsequent years||Thinning of the crown annually, removal of old, dry, frostbite, diseased by diseases and pests, improperly growing, curved branches.|
Preparing for winter involves water-charging irrigation, whitewashing, shelter and mulching. In October, moisture-boosting hydration is performed. This procedure is needed so that after the water freezes in the upper layers of the soil, the plant is fed with moisture remaining in the depths. Under one tree you need to spend about 100 liters of water.
Whitewashing is done before the onset of the first frosts. It protects cherries from diseases, pests, sun rays, frost pits, cracks in the bark. For it, you need to purchase a solution in a specialized store or mix it from fluff lime (300 g), PVA glue (2 tbsp.) Or milk (0.5 tbsp.), Water (2 l), copper sulfate (1 tbsp. l.), dust (1 tbsp. l.).Heat-loving cherries require mandatory shelter. This is especially true for young trees under the age of 5 years. The trunk is wrapped with agrofibre, roofing felt, spruce branches, burlap. The near-trunk zone is mulched with peat in a layer of 30 cm.
Pest and Disease Control
Sweet cherry Melitopol usually resists diseases well.
But with errors in agricultural technology, the following ailments can affect her:
- Coccomycosis. It is manifested by the formation of spots on foliage, falling leaves. The treatment is carried out by spraying with Skor (2 ml / 10 L), Chorus (3 ml / 10 L).
- Kleasterosporiosis. When infected, holes and spots appear on the leaves. They fight the disease with the preparations “Khom” (40 g / 10 l), “Ridomil” (20 g / 10 l).
The danger for cherry trees is represented by such harmful insects:
- Weevil. It harms flowers, leaves and ovaries.To get rid of the insect, use insecticides, which are used after flowering. The treatment of malathion (70 g / 10 l of water), trichloromethaphosome-3 (70 g / 10 l) is also effective.
- Aphid. The invasion of this insect occurs from May to July. You can find out that it hit trees by wilted foliage. To get rid of the parasite, spraying is used with garlic infusion, Fufanon preparations (10 ml / 10 l), Confidor (1.5 g / 10 l), Fitoverm (1.5 ml / 10 l).
- Mole. Attacks cherries in May. It damages the kidneys. Treats on the buds are effective against buds using Confidor (1.5 g / 10 L), Fitoverm (1.5 ml / 10 L).
- Cherry fly. In May - June damages berries. They fight with it with the preparations “Actellic” (2 ml / 2 l), “Fufanon”, (10 ml / 10 l), “Karate” (4 ml / 10 l).
Harvesting and storage
Berries should be removed when their flesh is juicy, the skin will turn dark red, but the stem will still be green. Most of all sugar and juice in fruits, which are almost black in color. Fruits are removed carefully by hand or resort to scissors. The peduncle is left on the berries. So they will be stored longer. If the fruits are planned to be immediately processed, then the stalks can not be left.
Did you know? The cultivation of cherries people began to engage in about 8 thousand years BC. e. Scientists suggest that at first it was planted in the territory of modern Turkey. And then, after it was discovered by the ancient Romans, this fruit tree became known to other nations.
Collection and storage is carried out in plastic boxes. It is important that before laying the berries for transport or storage, inspect them and remove any damaged, rotten, stained berries. In cold conditions, cherries can be stored for up to 2 weeks. The berry of the Melitopol variety is suitable for fresh consumption and for processing - making stewed fruit, preserves, and canning. To preserve healthy fruits for the winter, they can be frozen.So, early Melitopol cherry has a number of positive characteristics that allow you to grow it both for personal purposes and for sale. Among them are the formation of a large number of large, appetizing-looking berries with an expressive taste, high frost resistance, and the ability of the fruit to tolerate transportation well.